a Scroll Storytelling
Beagle sailed from Plymouth Sound on 27 December 1831 under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy. While the expedition was originally planned to last two years, it lasted almost five—Beagle did not return until 2 October 1836. Darwin spent most of this time exploring on land (three years and three months on land; 18 months at sea).
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Between 2006 – and 2011, the Dominican Republic contributed 8.5% on average of world rum exports, making it the fourth-largest exporter in the world with US$85,256,000 per year in rum exports.
Dominican rum exports grew by 24% on an annual average from the 2006-to 2011 period compared to 14% worldwide. Being Spain its main commercial partner (73% of the rum exported)
The main producers of rum are: Armando Bermudez & Co., Brugal & Co., Northern Winery, Isidro Bordas, Dominican National Brewery, Oliver & Oliver.
The most representative Dominican rum brands are: Atlantic Rum, Rum Barcelo, Cellars 1492, Brugal, Columbus Rum, Cuban Rum, Macorix, Optimus, Club Punta Cana, Ron Bermudez, Rum Summun, Biscay, J. Armando Bermudez & Co.Brugal & Co.Northern Winery, Isidro Bordas, Dominican National Brewery, Oliver & Oliver.
On this small island, there is a single distillery, “Antigua Distillery Limited,” with two brands of rum Cavalier Antigua Rum and English Harbor Antigua Rum, and currently nine labels .
The island in 2019 exported US$ 2,797 million in cane distillates.
This small archipelago to the south of Florida, its economy grew a lot during the prohibition era since it was used as part of the alcohol smuggling route from Cuba, England, and Puerto Rico (ministryofrum.com); very little sugarcane is produced on the islands (Knoema 2019)
It has a distilling company: Todhunter-Mitchell Distilleries Ltd, and a rum bottler: Don Lorenzo Rum.
Both produce mostly flavored rums (ministry of rum)
60% of the economy depends directly on tourism (caribeinsider)
This island is known for having given rise to RumRum, currently, it has five distilleries:: Foursquare Distillery, Mount Gay Distilleries Limited, Mount Gilboa Distillery, R.L. Seale & Co. Ltd, West Indies Rum Refinery And two rum bottling and blending companies: Hanschell Innis Ltd, St. Nicholas Abbey (ministry of Rum). In addition, it has the oldest still standing distillery in the world "Mount Gay 1703". In 2019, Barbados exported $39 million in RumRum and this is equivalent to approximately 3% of global rum sales (BPSTT 2014; UNComtrade 2017)
Currently, sugar cane cultivation is almost non-existent, contrary to what happened between the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, when it was the primary economic source, exporting most of the sugar to England. Still, much of the cane was also dedicated to the production of rum which was the economic success of the territory. The product was sought after by British naval ships and kept the factories and distilleries of the British Virgin Islands running.
There is currently a distillery in operation, and it is Callwood Arundel Rum, which produces a single label in light RumRum and aged RumRum; and two companies that blend and bottle rum:
Rum represents about 10% of the values exported by the island; sugar has always been an appreciated product since colonial times. Still, the by-products produced by the industry, such as honey for rum production, were not given more. Or bagasse as a source of energy or wood.
The best-selling Cuban rum worldwide is Havana Club, with 4.6 million 9-liter cases. (Statista 2019)
The primary market for Cuban rum is Cuba, and the remaining 80% is dedicated to export. Cuba is ready to cover 100% of the demand for its rums worldwide (Pernod-Ricard)
Currently, the largest producer of rums and spirits on the island is the Cubaron SA Corporation, which cares for the traditions and culture of Cuban rum. The corporation brings together four large rum factories: Cardenas Rum Maker, Central Rum, Rum Factory Santiago de Cuba, Santa Cruz Rum Maker.
Emblematic Brands: Rum Havana Club, Rum Santiago de Cuba, Cuban Rum, Sao Can, Northern Pearl Rum.
The economy of this small island of just 110,000 people (2013) is based on tourism, and as a strong part of agriculture, the planting and marketing of spices, especially nutmeg. (worldbank.org)
In 2019 they report exports of sugar cane distillates close to US$101,000 (trademap.org)
Currently, only two distilleries have operating permits: Grenada Sugar Factory with 11 known labels, River Antoine Estate Ltd with only one product, “River Antoine Royal Grenadian Rum” one of the strongest rums in the Caribbean with 87% Alc. Vol. (Ministryofrum.com)
Agriculture remains an entire sector of the economy of this French archipelago, despite the change of the economy to the private and service sector. The main crops are: Sugarcane and Banana. This sector employs approximately 12% of the population and for the year 2013 the indicators showed for the production of rum: 73,938 hectoliters of pure alcohol (regionguadeloupe.fr)
The vast majority of the rums produced are of the agricultural type (made from cane juice), making them tastier and of higher quality; the distilleries are small and family-owned and we find the following where their rums generally bear the same name:
Bologne Distillery, Damoiseau Distillery, Mon Repos Distillery, Domaine Severin, Montebello Carrere Distillery, Museum of Rhum (Ministryofrum)
Haiti is considered one of the smallest producers of rum in the Caribbean, social crises and broad economic inequality plague its history.
Even though in the 1800s, after its liberation from France, Haitian rum was highly desired and even compared to the best French brandies (ministryofrum.com), today, Haiti has only one distillery and most of the rums blended and marketed on the island come from its neighbor the Dominican Republic.
In 2019, Haiti exported distilled cane products worth approx. USD $2,180,000
Haitian rum is recognized for its great quality and flavor, its best-known distillery is Barbancourt, the name given to its different rums aged in French Limousine oak barrels (ministryofrum.com)
Currently some companies buy Rum from Haiti, to make special blends and bottle them as special editions, for example:
Berry's Haitian Rum, Cadenhead's Green Label Haitian Rum, Samaroli Haitian Rum.
Rum exports US$ 54 million.
J Wray & Nephew accounts for 60% of the production, with 240,000 barrels of aging.
150,000 families depend indirectly on the Rum business; Jamaica produces 50 million liters of rum a year, and its products are sold in more than 70 countries.
In 1893 there were 148 distilleries; today, only five produce the widest variety of rums globally.
There are more than 70 rum labels today, coming from the following seven distilleries:
• Hampden Estate • J. Wray & Nephew Limited • Long Pond Distillery • Monymusk Distillery • National Rums of Jamaica Ltd. • Port Morant •Worthy Park Estate Ltd. • Of these three bottlers: • Blackwell LLC • Dr Ian Sangster • Everglades Farms (ministry of rum)
Martinique is home to some of the most exciting rums on the market, beginning in 1870 with the production of agricultural rums that set it apart from its Caribbean competitors. It currently has an “A.O.C. MARTINIQUE” that protects these rums as complex as Cognac.
We found ten sugarcane spirits distilleries in the different regions of the island:
Of peace, Dillon, J.M the favorite, The Mauny, Le Galion S.A.E.M. (Martinique), Neison, Rhumeries Duquesne, Simonst James.
And another 8 companies are dedicated to the blending of rums and bottling: GraciousG. and P. DormoyG.HardyJ BallyThe favourite, Ron Madkaud, Saint Etienne, Trois Rivières
In the mid-1700s St Kitts was known as the "Queen of the Caribs" thanks to its large sugar production.
Currently, there is a company that bottles flavored rums, the "St Kitts Rum Company", most of its production is sold to the United States. While Nevis was in the midst of the French and American wars, it was a hub for rum smuggling into the United States. (Ministryofrum.com)
In 2020, they exported approximate values of USD $1,135,000 in rum.
Santa Lucia began as a French colony in the 17th century, and later it was an English colony. The cultivation of sugar cane was their main source of income until the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, being replaced by the cultivation of bananas thanks to the entry of refrigerated ships.
St. Lucia Distillers Ltd. currently has only one distillery, resulting from continuous mergers of small old distillers and families that were investing in the rum distilling business. (ministry of rum)
Among the most recognized brands of this consortium are: Chairman's Reserve Rum, TØZ Gold, bounty, Kweyol Spice, Crystal, Denros Strong Rum.
This small Caribbean nation is made up of islands of volcanic origin, the last major eruption was that of the La Soufrière volcano in April 2021.
It is part of the 15 CARICOM nations, an association of producing countries that seek to defend and define the standards of Caribbean Rum (wirspa.com)
Currently, they only have one distillery, the St Vincent Distillers Limited which produces two brands of rum which are: St. Vincent Sunset Rum, Sunset Captain Bligh Rum
Sint Maarten is part of the territories of the Dutch Kingdom and is located in the southern half of San Martin Island, while the northern part is a French territory. 80% of the population worked in the tourism sector, which was severely affected by Hurricane Irma in 2017.
With the abolition of slavery in the late 19th century, the plantation-based economy declined sharply, giving it a break in 1939 when Sint Maartin was made a duty-free port.
Since then, the business of importing liquor has been growing, making the blending and bottling of rum more lucrative than producing it.
Currently, there are two major brands of mostly flavored and spiced rums: Blackbeard's from Sint Maarten Guavaberry Co. NV, Tooper's Rhum de Toopers.
Currently you can find three rum distilling companies from which several brands emerge and you could find up to 43 different labels from these small islands.
Until the end of the 19th century, sugar cane was one of its main economic sources and it is said that half a million gallons of rum were produced in Tobago in 1793
The distilling companies that still work are: 10 Cane Moet Hennessy , Angostura Ltd (Angostura Rums, Jack Iron), Trinidad Distillers Ltd (Kraken Rums, Zaya Rums), Likewise, its rums are used by blending companies for labels such as Plantation, Mezan, Compagnie Des Indies, etc.
Exporting in 2019 about USD $36,134,000 in cane distillates destined for the production of spirits (trademap.org)
These small islands were originally Danish colonies and were purchased by the United States in 1917.
The most recognized brand of this island is Cruzan Rums, distilled and bottled at Cruzan Rum Distillery.
These are other well-known bottling companies in the islands and whose brands are: A.H. Riise. Calypso And finally, we cannot leave out Sailor Jerry Spiced Rum brand that is bottled in Scotland by W.G&S with Rums from the U.S Virgin Islands (William Grants & Sons)
"The Beagle anchored late at night in the bay of Valparaiso. When morning came, everything appeared delightful. After Tierra del Fuego, the climate felt quite delicious. The view from the anchorage is very pretty."
"In the wooded island of Chiloe, which has an extremely humid climate, this little bird [Trochilus forficatus], skipping from side to side amidst the dripping foliage, is perhaps more abundant than almost any other kind."
"There is not much cleared land near Valdivia: after crossing a river at the distance of a few miles, we entered the forest, and then passed only one miserable hovel, before reaching our sleeping-place for the night."
"The mayor-domo of the estate quickly rode down to tell me the terrible news of the great earthquake of the 20th:—'That not a house in Concepcion or Talcahuano (the port) was standing; that seventy villages were destroyed; and that a great wave had almost washed away the ruins of Talcahuano.'"
"The town contains about a thousand inhabitants, and stands on a little plain of sand at the foot of a great wall of rock, 2000 feet in height, here forming the coast. The whole is utterly desert."
"Lima stands on a plain in a valley, formed during the gradual retreat of the sea. Steep barren hills rise like islands from the plain, which is divided, by straight mud-walls, into large green fields. In these scarcely a tree grows excepting a few willows, and an occasional clump of bananas and of oranges."
"As I was walking along I met two large tortoises, each of which must have weighed at least two hundred pounds: one was eating a piece of cactus, and as I approached, it stared at me and slowly walked away; the other gave a deep hiss, and drew in its head."
"The survey of the Galapagos Archipelago being concluded, we steered towards Tahiti and commenced our long passage of 3,200 miles."
"New Zealand is favoured by one great natural advantage; namely, that the inhabitants can never perish from famine. The whole country abounds with fern: and the roots of this plant, if not very palatable, yet contain much nutriment."
"At last we anchored within Sydney Cove. In the evening I walked through the town, and returned full of admiration at the whole scene. "
"Late in the evening we anchored in the snug cove on the shores of which stands the capital of Tasmania. The first aspect of the place was very inferior to that of Sydney; the latter might be called a city, this is only a town. "
"The ring-formed reef of the lagoon-island is surmounted in the greater part of its length by linear islets. On entering, the scene was very curious and rather pretty; its beauty, however, entirely depended on the brilliancy of the surrounding colours."
"In the morning we passed round the northern end of Mauritius. From this point of view the aspect of the island equalled the expectations raised by the many well-known descriptions of its beautiful scenery."
"With regard to the number of large quadrupeds, there certainly exists no quarter of the globe which will bear comparison with Southern Africa."
"This island, the forbidding aspect of which has been so often described, rises abruptly like a huge black castle from the ocean. Near the town, as if to complete nature's defence, small forts and guns fill up every gap in the rugged rocks."
"The flat swampy land on which Pernambuco stands is surrounded, at the distance of a few miles, by a semicircle of low hills, or rather by the edge of a country elevated perhaps two hundred feet above the sea."
"...thence we proceeded to the Azores, where we stayed six days."
"On the 2nd of October we made the shores of England; and at Falmouth I left the Beagle, having lived on board the good little vessel nearly five years."
23 years after Darwin's return, On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life is published by John Murray.